Inter-calibrated Temperature and Salinity in-depth profiles in Hornsund Fjord

A set of inter-calibrated Temperature and Salinity in-depth profiles in Hornsund Fjord. There are 3 sets of data: all measurements (.csv files); smoothed median value for every 1 meter (.csv1m files); smoothed median value for every 1 dbar (*.csv1dbar files). The folder names are the year (YYYY) of measurements. The files' names include dates with/or without hours of measurement and station names (YYYYMMDD_station or YYYYMMDDHHMM_station). The text files include information about station name, geographical position, date with/or without an hour of measurement, equipment, and serial number. Data sets include pressure (dbar), depth (m), temperature (C), potential temperature (C), practical salinity (PSU), SigmaT density (kg/m3), and sound velocity (m/s). We observed a high value of salinity in RAW data (Moskalik M., Głowacki O.. Temperature, Salinity, Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen in depth profiles in Hornsund Fjord., which suggested unexpected Atlantic Water (temperature>3 C, salinity>34.9 PSU) intrusion to Hornsund Fiord. We used all of our CTD sensors (Valeport: 1 CTD; RBR: 3 CTD, 2TD, 6 T; SeaBird 1CT; SAIV A/S: 1 CTD), at the same time in a stable position at stable depths for 24 hours measurement. SAIV A/S conductivity data was different from the rest. Because for CTD in-depth profile Valeport and SAIV A/S were used we made comparable CTD in-depths profiles for these two CTD sensors. Based on comparison plots for temperature and conductivity from the same depths for all comparable in-depth profiles for these two sensors we add linear correction for temperature and conductivity data from SAIV A/S. After losing SAIV A/S sensor we made the same procedure for the new. Depth (UNESCO Technical Papers in Marine Science No. 44), potential temperature (Bryden 1973 polynomial for adiabatic lapse rate), salinity (UNESCO 1983), density (Millero and Poisson 1981, UNESCO 1981), and sound velocity (UNESCO algorithm, Chen and Millero 1977, UNESCO paper see Fofonoff and Millard 1983, Wong and Zhu 1995) were calculated based on a commonly used formula from pressure, temperature, and conductivity after data inter-calibration.

Data and Resources

Additional Info

Field Value
GCMD keywords
Dataset Center
Maintainer Data Steward
Dataset PI
  • PI name: Mateusz Moskalik  PI email: mmoskfoo(at)  PI ORCID: 0000-0002-0615-9528  PI Institution: Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences  PI Department: Polar and Marine Research
  • PI name: Oskar Głowacki  PI email: oglowackifoo(at)  PI Institution: Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences  PI Department: Polar and Marine Research
  • PI name: Meri Korhonen  PI email: mkorhonenfoo(at)  PI Institution: Institute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences  PI Department: Polar and Marine Research
Dataset Owner
  • Owner name: Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences  Owner PIC (Participant Identification Code): 996625337  Owner address: Księcia Janusza 64, 01-452 Warszawa, Poland
Licence Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)
Dataset status In Work
Activity type
  • in-situ measurements
  • long-term monitoring
Access constraint Open
Dataset modified 2022-06-09
Version 1.0
Metadata created 2022-06-09
Quality statement Quality controlled by statisticat and manual inspection
Quality Editor
  • Editor name: Bartłomiej Luks  Editor email: luksfoo(at)  Editor Institution: Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences
Spatial distribution { "coordinates": [ [ [ 14.24, 77.22 ], [ 16.83, 77.22 ], [ 16.83, 76.82 ], [ 14.24, 76.82 ], [ 14.24, 77.22 ] ] ], "type": "Polygon" }
Region Svalbard, Spitsbergen, Hornsund
Start time 2008-07-24 00:00 UTC
End time 2021-12-31 23:59 UTC
Dataset citation Moskalik M., Głowacki O., Korhonen M. Inter-calibrated Temperature and Salinity in-depth profiles in Hornsund Fjord.
Dataset DOI
External resource
  • Publication title: Vishnu H., Deane G.B., Chitre M., Glowacki O., Stokes D., Moskalik M. 2020. Vertical directionality and spatial coherence of the sound field in glacial bays in Hornsund Fjord. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 148, 3849  Publication DOI: 10.1121/10.0002868
  • Publication title: Zaborska A., Strzelewicz A., Rudnicka P., Moskalik M. 2020. Processes driving heavy metal distribution in the seawater of an Arctic fjord (Hornsund, southern Spitsbergen). Marine Pollution Bulletin 161, 111719  Publication DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111719
  • Publication title: Moskalik M., Ćwiąkała J., Szczuciński W., Dominiczak A., Głowacki O., Wojtysiak K., Zagórski P. 2018. Spatiotemporal changes in the concentration and composition of suspended particulate matter in front of Hansbreen, a tidewater glacier in Svalbard. Oceanologia 60(4), 446-463  Publication DOI: 10.1016/j.oceano.2018.03.001
  • Publication title: Glowacki O., Deane G.B., Moskalik M. 2018. The Intensity, Directionality, and Statistics of Underwater Noise From Melting Icebergs. Geophysical Research Letters 45(9), 4105-4113  Publication DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077632
  • Publication title: Glowacki O., Moskalik M., Deane G.B. 2016. The impact of glacier meltwater on the underwater noise field in a glacial bay. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 121(12), 8455-8470  Publication DOI: 10.1002/2016JC012355
  • Publication title: Błaszczyk M., Jania J.A., Ciepły M., Grabiec M., Ignatiuk D., Kolondra L., Kruss A., Luks B., Moskalik M., Pastusiak T., Strzelewicz A., Walczowski W., Wawrzyniak T. 2021. Factors Controlling Terminus Position of Hansbreen, a Tidewater Glacier in Svalbard. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 126(2), e2020JF005763  Publication DOI: 10.1029/2020JF005763
  • Publication title: Glowacki O., Deane G.B. 2020. Quantifying iceberg calving fluxes with underwater noise. The Cryosphere, 14, 1025–1042  Publication DOI: 10.5194/tc-14-1025-2020
  • Project title: Long-term OceaNoGraphic monitoring in HORnsuNd region (LONGHORN)  Project ID: RiS-ID 11029  Project description: Long-term OceaNoGraphic monitoring in HORnsuNd region (LONGHORN) has been realized since 2015. It is a continuation of a previous project led by the Department of Polar and Marine Researchers Institute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences (DPMR IG PAS). This monitoring has been implemented to benefit scientific communities interested in processes which undergo in fjords, especially on the border between marine, glacial and coastal environment. Still a little is known about those processes, even though they are causally related to the observed climate change. However, the analysis of those processes is very problematic. Lack of long-term datasets from fjords with glaciers is one of the relevant problems. Data are typically obtained during research cruises or short-time measurement campaigns, usually performed in spring and summer. The location of the Stanislaw Siedlecki Polish Polar Station (PPS) in Hornsund gives an opportunity to establish long-term all-year oceanographic monitoring. In Hornsund, two sets of oceanographic and associated photographic monitoring are in progress. The first set of oceanographic monitoring is executed by PPS staff. It includes: measurements of temperature, salinity, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen in-depth profiles in stations covering the whole Hornsund; analyses of suspended sediment concentration and loss on ignition from water samples taken in-depth profiles in Hansbukta (forefield of Hansbreen); analyses of sediment flux and loss on ignition from sediment traps deployed in Hansbukta (forefield of Hansbreen). The second set of oceanographic monitoring is realized via autonomous underwater buoys set up by DPMR IG PAS researchers. It includes: - temperature and salinity all-year registration in a selected location in Hornsund; wave and tide all-year registration in a selected location in Hornsund; - ambient noise acoustic all-year registration in Hansbukta (forefield of Hansbreen). Autonomous photographic monitoring is realized via cameras localized on Ariekammen, Fugleberget, Fannytoppen, Baranowskiodden, and Fuglebergsletta. They are used in the analysis of sea state and ice conditions in Isbjornhamna and Hansbukta.  Project financing institution: Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences
  • Project title: "RAW – Retreat And Wither" – What is the influence of glaciers recession from tidewater to land-based on the marine biological production and biogeochemistry in the Arctic?  Project ID: UMO-2019/34/H/ST10/00504  Project description: The productivity of marine ecosystems is an important factor conditioning element and organic matter cycling on Earth. It also influences the composition of the atmosphere and thus to shape our climate. The world’s oceans are a great source of O2 and sink for atmospheric CO2. They absorb about 22% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and therefore limit global warming. The Arctic Ocean, due to its relatively high productivity and low water temperatures enhances CO2 solubility, is responsible for as much as 5-14% of the global CO2 uptake by marine regions. This makes the Arctic marine ecosystems important components in the global carbon cycle. Recent findings show that Arctic fjords are especially effective in absorbing atmospheric CO2. The biogeochemistry of the fjord systems is, however, very complex and not yet fully understood. The great unknowns that remain include the effect of glacial retreat on the CO2 budget of coastal waters. Climate change is disproportionately strong in the Arctic, which is the most rapidly warming region on Earth. One of the observable consequences of the transformation of the Arctic environment is the rapidly receding glaciers. Due to glaciers calving, submarine melting and drainage of meltwater through glacial outflows, glaciers are recognized as the main source not only of freshwater supply into the fjord, but also mineral, organic matter, and nutrients. All nutrients have in the past been argued to affect marine primary productivity in the areas where there are tidewater glaciers. However, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that deepwater upwelling at the terminus of tidewater glaciers causes the most important increases in primary production. These deep waters are usually rich in nutrients, including nitrogen. The opposite situation is near the land-based glacier inputs, where low nitrogen availability in meltwater limits productivity. Furthermore, sustained glacier recession will change the glacial regime from predominate tidewater to land-based. The current oceanographical, sedimentological, and biogeochemical conditions will, therefore, adopt more characteristics of land-based glaciers and non-glacial inputs. This, in turn, may alter the total nutrient flux supplied to the euphotic zone. Therefore, it remains uncertain how the marine ecosystem productivity will respond to future changes in the Arctic and so this project aims to test the following hypothesis: The warming-driven glacier recession causes a reduction in marine biological production in polar coastal regions and seas due to: - unfavorable nutrient balance caused by a reduction in nutrient-rich deep water upwelling from buoyant meltwaters plumes; - shallowing the euphotic zone caused by increased surface suspended sediments concentration; - reduction of water mass exchanges and sediment-bound nutrients transfer between the fjord/open sea and newly formed bay due to hydrography and formation of natural sediment traps. The proposed project directly addresses the problem of changing productivity in the Arctic fjords due to glacial retreat. As such it is of great importance for understanding the role of polar coastal regions for global carbon cycling in the future. As the pelagic productivity shapes the structure and condition of the entire ecosystem, the project results will also provide important knowledge to assess the ecological consequences of the changing climate in the delicate Arctic ecosystems. This research project is truly interdisciplinary and wide-ranging, with marine sedimentology, hydrography, biogeochemistry, ecology, land hydrology with glaciology fields providing a much-needed holistic approach to the whole system. Simultaneous marine measurements are planned in closely located catchments having similar bedrock but different stages of the glacial recession (tidewater, land-based and lack of glacier). A comprehensive approach to the investigation of nutrient cycling, beginning from delivery from land to the marine environment, to the marine production and utilization, will be performed. Finally, because the goal of the project is aiming at studying the real, on-going process that is expected to affect the whole Arctic coastal ecosystems, the planned research is a kind of natural experiment of the crucial problem that the Earth system is now facing.  Project homepage:  Project financing institution: Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2014-2021, Norway Grants, National Science Centre Poland